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[1]胡中为 **,史建春,赵海斌,等. 彗星的反常尘埃彗尾 * [J].南京大学学报(自然科学),2011,47(1):1-12.
 H u Zhong -Wei,Shi Jian -Chun,et al.Anomalous dust tails of comets [J].Journal of Nanjing University(Natural Sciences),2011,47(1):1-12.
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 彗星的反常尘埃彗尾 *

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《南京大学学报(自然科学)》[ISSN:0469-5097/CN:32-1169/N]

卷:
47
期数:
2011年第1期
页码:
1-12
栏目:
出版日期:
2011-01-30

文章信息/Info

Title:
Anomalous dust tails of comets 

作者:
 胡中为 13 ** 史建春 1 2 赵海斌 1 2 林启生 4
 ( 1. 中国科学院紫金山天文台, 南京, 210008; 2. 中国科学院国家天文台, 北京, 100012;
3. 南京大学天文系, 南京, 210008; 4. 鹿林天文台, 中央大学, 桃园, 32001, 中国台湾)
Author(s):
H u Zhong -Wei 1 3 Shi Jian -Chun 1 2 Zhao H ai-Bin 1 2 Li Qi-Sheng 4
 ( 1. Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, 210008, China;
2. National Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100012, China;
3. Astronomy department, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093, China;
4. Lulin Observatory, Central University, T aoyuan, 32001, China)
关键词:
 彗 星 彗 核 彗?发 尘埃彗尾 反常彗尾 太阳辐射压 几何投视效应 鹿林彗星
Keywords:
 comet comet nucleus coma dust tail ant- i tail solar radiation pressure geometric perspective effect comet Lulin
分类号:
-
DOI:
-
文献标志码:
-
摘要:
 从地球上观测到的彗尾一般是在彗核的背太阳一侧延展, 但也观测到几颗彗星在某些特殊情况却呈现出从彗核朝向太阳一侧延展的扇形或长钉形的反常彗尾或向日彗尾. 反常彗尾是彗核抛出的
大尘粒组成的尘埃彗尾, 由于受太阳辐射压斥力较小而成为其轨道面附近的太空垃圾, 这些垃圾会危害空间环境和航天安全, 因此, 观测和研究反常彗尾对于预防这些大尘粒撞击飞船有重要意义. 本文首先
介绍了反常彗尾的基本解释和事例, 然后阐述了反常彗尾的尘埃彗尾动力学理论及其研究成果. 最后简述了我国彗星猎人发现的新彗星 C/2007 N3( Lulin), 即鹿林彗星及其在 2009 年 1- 2 月观测到的奇特
反常尘埃彗尾情况, 并给出了初步处理的一些形态图像和解释, 初步测量和估算了反常彗尾长度.

Abstract:
Comets are spectacular members among the objects of the solar system, and their appearances change wonderfully when they orbit the Sun. As they are very far from the Sun, they are basically small naked main
bodies- the comet nuclei, which are " ice - conglomerates"or" dirty snowballs"consisting of ice and dust. As they approach the Sun and are acted by strong solar radiation, ices of the nucleus surfaces are heated and sublimated into
gases, and the dust particles embedded in them are freed and dragged out by the gases, they form the comas huge volume but very thin gaseous and dusty atmosphere. Likewise, molecules in the comas are dissociated, ionized, and
excited to produce fluorescent radiations, and dust particles are also broken and dissociated. When observed from the Earth, dust tails of comets generally forms on the side opposite to the Sun, because the solar radiation pressure
pushes dust particles away from the Sun, so bending the dust tails. T he solar wind and its coupling magnetic fieldpush strongly comet ions away from the Sun, and rather straight plasma tail forms at ant- i sun direction, and large -
scale phenomenon such as tai- l rays, bend and knots, disconnection event appear often. It is particularly interesting that anomalous tails or ant- i tails of sunward fan or spikes have been observed for several comets at a peculiar place.
It is shown from these observations and researches that the anomalous tails consist in fact of large dust particles ejected from the nuclei, and these particles are suffered smaller solar radiation pressure and become the space
garbage remained near orbital plane of the comet. When the Earth moves through the plane, due to peculiar geometric perspective effect of the Sun? the comet? the Earth, the sunward anomalous tail is seen on the Earth.
Therefore, their observations and researches are of importance to predict impact danger of spacecrafts by these particles. In this paper, after a brief review on development and important results of comet observations and
researches, some basic explanations and examples of the anomalous tails have been introduced by means of the syndyname and synchrone equations derived from the mechanics theory of dust tails first; then, dynamical theories
which are based on kinetic and fluid -dynamic concepts of dust tails and the anomalous tails, as well as research results have been introduced, from two to three dimensions including the theory of Finson -Probstein, neck -line
theory and inverse Mont Carlo model, et al. , to explain the distribution of surface density, particle -size distribution and dust emission rate. Finally, it is introduced that the newly -discovered comet C/2007 N3 ( Lulin) , which is a
discovery of comet hinters of China and whose peculiar anomalous tail appeared on January -February 2009. Some appearance images by preliminary computer processing and explanation of the ant- i tail are presented, and their
lengths are measured and estimated.

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备注/Memo

备注/Memo:
 国家自然科学基金( 10778637, 10933004, 11003048) , 中国科学院紫金山天文台青年人才基金( Ec0905c11074) , 紫金山天文台小行星基金会项目
更新日期/Last Update: 2015-04-07